Origin: Anc Greek θυρεός/thireos(=shield) + είδος/idos(=form). The shield name "θυρεός" derived from θύρα/thyra(=door) because of its oblong shape resembling to door. The aspis and the thureos were the shields principally in use by ancient Greeks; the former for light, the latter for heavy armed troops.
Coined: Galen first used the name shield-shaped cartilage in order to describe the “Adam’s apple” in the throat. In 1656 by Thomas Wharton (also famous for his description of the submandibular duct) who used the term “thyroid gland” because of shield-shaped cartilage upon the gland rests. ( ‘Adenographia’ the ‘glandulae thyroideae’ or thyroid in 1656). Previosly it was known by Celsus the medical condition of bronchocoele (a herniation of the bronchus) in 15 AD and medical authorities also used this term even into the 19th century despite Wharton earlier descriptions.
An adjective for both the gland and the 9 laregeal cartilage upon which rests the thyroid gland.
Runon derivatives :
thyroadenitis, thyroaplasia, thyrocele, thyroglobulin, thyroidectomy, thyromegaly, thyrotherapy, thyrotoxic, thyrotrope, thyrotropin
the thyroid disfunction hypotheroidism and thyrotoxocosis (hyperthoidism) were not considered to be thyropid diseases until early 1900s.