Term: otolaryngology (ORL)
Literally meaning: about ears and larynx
Origin: Anc Greek
ους/ous(genitive case: ωτός/otos=of ear)
+ λάρυνξ/larynx(=/throat) λάλη/lali(voice) + άγαγον/agαγον(=carry)
+-λογία/logia(=logy, suffix meaning “study of”, “speech”, “discourse”) > λέω/leo (=speak).
Hippocrates (460 B.C.- ca. 370), was probably the first to examine the tympanic membrane and to recognize it as part of the organ for hearing. Roman Aulus Cornelius Celsus, in 30 A.D., first described the early tonsillectomy. Aretaeus ( 80 -160 A.D) made the earliest reference to tracheotomy for relief of suffocation. Antonio Scarpa(1747-1832) discovered the membranous labyrinth. He described the hearing anatomy of fishes, birds, reptiles, and man and A. Ferrein, in 1742, was the first to apply the name "vocal cords" to the lips of the glottis and saw them as the main instrument for the modification of the voice. Benjamin Guy Babington (1794-1865) invented a laryngoscope that he used on many patients.
Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine and surgery concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat head and neck disorders.