|Carl Linnaeus (1707 –1778)|
Origin: Anc Greek
νόμος/nomos(=division) > νέμω/nemo(=distribute, divide)
Coined:The first attempt for describing and naming organisms is began by ancient philosopher Aristotle (384-322BC) who tried to classify animal species in his work : The History of Animals. In parallel his pupill Theophrastus (c.371-c.287 BC) wrote about plant classification (Historia Plantarum). During the 1700s Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist Carl Linnaeus (1707 –1778) simplified the classification system of living organisms by imparting a two-part naming system, called binomial nomenclature, to make identification easier. American plant ecologist Robert Harding Whittaker (1920–1980) in 1969 proposed 5 kingdoms: Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protista and Monera. Prof Thomas Cavalier-Smith (1942- ) proposed a new Kingdom of Chromista in the system of 6 kingdoms: Plantae (eukaryotic characterised by cell wall) , Animalia (eukaryotic characterised by cells without cell wall), Fungi (eukaryotic characterised by cells without cell wall), Chromista (eukaryotic algae), Protozoa (unicellular eukaryotic) and Bacteria (procaryotic).
Taxonomy is the naming of organisms in an ordered system according to their established natural relationship. Taxonomy uses taxonomic units, known as taxa (singular taxon).