Term: electroencephalography (EEG) and encephalogram
Literally meaning: “image of electrical condition of the brain”
Origin: Anc Greek
/çλεκτρονshining light ήλιος
εγκέφαλος/egephalos(=brain) >εν/en(=within) +κεφαλήν/cephalin(=head)(-γραφία)/(-graphia)(=-graphy, a combining form denoting something written or represented as in words biography, geography, photography. > γράμμα/gramma(=letter)
The history of EEG was emerged directly from psychiatric field. The early EEG discoveries occurring with epilepsy, structural lesions and encephalopathies. English scientist Richard Caton (1842–1926), Professor of physiology, was the first to report (1875) the existence of electrical potentials emanating from the brains of live animals such as rabbits and monkeys. In 1890 Polish physiologist Adolf Beck showed that the visual cortex of the dog produced large electrical potentials when the animal’s eyes were rhythmically illuminated. In 1924 German psychiatrist Hans Berger (1873-1941) after many failed efforts resulted to make the first non-invasive scalp EEG. Berger named the procedure of obtaining the electrical waves of brain “electroencephalography”. He also coined the term “alpha-waves” to describe the 10Hz activity characterising the awake relaxed EEG of adult humans.
Electroencephalography (short encephalograph or encephalogram) is the computer recording of the brain’s electrical activity, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the head. EEG is used to evaluate brain function in many pathological conditions such as seizures, brain tumors, coma, dementia, and epilepsy. It is used also to determine brain death.