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Rudolph Virchow, (1888-1895)
Term: craniosynostosis
Origin: Anc Greek
κρανίον/cranion(=skull) >κραναός/cranaos(=rocky, hard, rough)
+ συν/syn(=with, together)
+ οστέωση/όστeoσις(= relating to bone) > οστέον/osteoν(=bone)
In 1830, by AW Otto (1888-1895) who recognized the first premature closure of sutures as a discrete clinical entity. In 1851, R Virchow (1821-1902) was the first person to classify the different types of skull deformity seen in persons with craniosynostosis and introduced the morphological descriptive terms still in use today. Virchow published a landmark paper in the history of craniosynostosis in which he described the fundamental aberrant growth patterns in this condition. Virchow initially described this disorder as craniostenosis, meaning a structured or narrowed skull. Later he  convinced by HR Sear to instead call this entity craniosynostosis, which more accurately indicated suture involvement and encompassed all varieties of suture disease.
Otto AW: Lehrbuch der Pathologischen Anatomie des Menschen und der Thiere Berlin, Rücker, 1830.
Virchow R: Uber den Cretinismus, namentlich in Franken, und uber pathologische Schadelformen. Verh Phys Med Gesell Wurzburg 2:230–271, 1851
Sear HR: Some notes on craniosynostosis. Br J Radiol 10:445, 1937

Craniosynostosis is premature and abnormal fusion of one or more of the 6 cranial sutures (synostosis) leading to inhibition of normal head growth.

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