Term: lyophilisation or lyophilisation
Literally meaning: “solvent-loving process" or “process for loving dry state”
Origin: Anc Greek
λύω/leo (=to break up, to dissolve)
+φιλέω/phileo ( “to love”, “to kiss”, “to have tenderness for”)
> πίλναμαι/pilnamai(=contact, approach)
Freeze-drying procedure has been traced back to prehistory, when Eskimo preserved fish by dehydration in the cold Arctic winds. Ancient Peruvian Incas placed their potatoes and other crops above Machu Picchu where the temperature and atmospheric pressure are low. They placed their products in cold climates to freeze at night and then in the day it would evaporate. In medicine Altmann used freeze-drying for the preparation of histological sections as early as 1980. Shackell independently rediscovered the technique in 1909 for the preservation of biologicals as he realised that the material had to be frozen before commercing the drying process. The industrial applications of freeze-drying do not appear to have been appreciated prior to patients of Tival in 1927.
L.R. Rey is attributed with the term lyophilisation in 1976, by taking into account the porous nature of the dried product and its “lyophil” characteristic to rapidly reabsorb the solvent and restore the substance.
R. Altman, Die Elementarorganis men u. ihre Bezehungen zu den Zellen, 2nd Ed Leipzig (1894)
L.D. Shackell, An Improved Method of of Desccation, With Some Applications to Biological Problems Am J Physiol 24 (1909) 325-340.
L.R Rey, International Symposium on Lyophilization of Biological Products. Washington, C.C. (1976)
Lyophilization is the procedure of dehydration (water removal) of products by rapid freezing under a vacuum. One of its application is the stability of dried product for long time without destroying their physical structure.